|2. Place of birth and family|
Shah Jahan was a member of the Mughal dynasty that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid 18th-century. After the death of his father, King Jahangir, in 1627, Shah Jahan emerged the victor of a bitter power struggle with his brothers, and crowned himself emperor at Agra in 1628.
Place of birth and family background of Shah Jahan the Great
Shah Jahan was born in January 5, 1592 at Lahore, Pakistan. His alias name was Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram.
- Fathers name: Jahangir
- Mothers name: Jagat Gosaini
- Spouses: Kandahari Mahal, Akbarabadi Mahal, Mumtaz Mahal, Fatehpuri Mahal, Muti Begum
- Children: Aurangzeb, Dara Shukoh, Jahanara Begum, Shah Shuja, Murad Bakhsh, Roshanara Begum, Gauhara Begum, Parhez Banu Begum, Husnara Begum, Sultan Luftallah, Sultan Daulat Afza, Huralnissa Begum, Shahzadi Surayya Banu Begum, Sultan Ummid Baksh.
Childhood: Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592, to Emperor Jahangir and his second spouse, Jagat Gosaini.
After naming him Khurram (the joyous one), his grandfather, Emperor Akbar took him away from his mom and handed him over to his Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum. Khurram, who was simply six days outdated, began rising up underneath the care of Akbar and Ruqaiya Sultan Begum.
Fairly naturally, younger Khurram was keen on Akbar and his foster mom greater than his organic mother and father. Ruqaiya Sultan Begum raised him with love and care and made that her high precedence. Actually, Jahangir as soon as famously mentioned that he (Khurram) was showered with extra love by Ruqaiya Sultan Begum than he or his spouse ever may have.
He acquired a conventional princely training that concerned coaching in martial arts and cultural arts which included music and poetry. Whereas Akbar would instill in him the totally different methods of warfare and management, his foster mom would narrate him the significance of ethical values. In 1605, publish the demise of Akbar, a 13-year-old Khurram returned to his organic mother and father.
Engagement With Mumtaz Mahal
In 1607, the 15-year-old Khurram acquired engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal). Nonetheless, the courtroom astrologers had predicted that the couple shouldn’t marry till 1612, for his or her marriage wouldn’t be nice in any other case. Paying heed to the astrologers, Khurram’s mother and father and well-wishers determined to place off his marriage ceremony with Mumtaz till 1612, making the couple wait for an additional 5 years.
After he was instructed to attend till 1612 for his marriage ceremony with Mumtaz, Khurram went forward along with his first marriage ceremony with Kandahari Begum, a princess from Persia. He had his first baby, a daughter, together with her.
He then married one other princess earlier than marrying Mumtaz Mahal in 1612. After having fathered two kids from his first two marriages, he fathered fourteen kids along with his favourite spouse Mumtaz. He additionally married two different ladies particularly Akbarabadi Mahal and Muti Begum, however it’s mentioned that these marriages had been for political causes and the ladies he married for such causes had been thought-about extra as ‘royal wives.’
Shah Jahan’s Reign
All through his reign, Shah Jahan continually strived in direction of increasing his empire. This gave rise to many battles and a few alliances. Whereas he joined palms with a few of the Rajput kings of Bundelkhand, Baglana and Mewar, he waged warfare on the others just like the Bundela Rajputs.
In the year 1632, Shah Jahan captured the fortress at Daulatabad and captivated Husain Shah. He appointed his son Aurangzeb as his Viceroy who in flip captured locations like Golconda and Bijapur of South India. He then went on to seize Kandahar, which led to the well-known Mughal–Safavid Battle. His empire now stretched past Khyber Go and all the way in which to Ghazna.
Shah Jahan’s Military
Shah Jahan invested most of his time in constructing an enormous military. It’s mentioned that his military included greater than 911,400 troopers and 185,000 horsemen. He was additionally accountable in manufacturing cannonsin big numbers. Throughout his 30 12 months reign, Shah Jahan transformedhis empire right into a well-oiled navy machine.
Contribution to Mughal Structure
Shah Jahan was an avid builder and is answerable for constructing a few of the most lovely edifices in current day India and Pakistan. It’s mentioned that many European vacationers would go to his empire simply to be taught the totally different methods used within the building of buildings. It is usually mentioned that a few of the world’s most gifted engineers and designers resided in his empire.
Shah Jahan grew to become critically sick in September 1658. Throughout his days of restoration, Dara Shikoh, one in every of his sons, assumed the position of the ruler.
This made his brothers livid and nearly instantly, Shuja and Murad Baksh sought unbiased provinces and claimed their rightful share. In the meantime, Aurangzeb had shaped a military of his personal and went on to defeat his brother Dara Shikoh. He then killed remainder of the contenders and declared himself because the emperor.
Although Shah Jahan later recovered from his sickness, Aurangzeb deemed him unfit to rule and imprisoned him within the citadel of Agra. He additionally imprisoned his sister Jahanara Begum Sahib who needed to stick with her father in an effort to handle him. Shah Jahan is alleged to have spent eight lengthy years of his imprisonment by staring on the tomb of his beloved spouse – the marvel that he inbuilt her reminiscence.
Within the first week of January 1666, Shah Jahan as soon as once more fell sick and by no means recovered. On January 22, he’s mentioned to have summoned Akbarabadi Mahal and requested her to handle his daughter, Jahanara Begum.
He’s then mentioned to have recited just a few traces from the holy Quran earlier than respiration his final, aged 74. The emperor who as soon as dominated the entire of India and extra had died a prisoner. Princess Jahanara Begum wanted a funeral procession of her father’s dead body throughout Agra including the state’s noble men so that the people might bid a final good bye to their beloved emperor.
Nonetheless, Aurangzeb was in no temper for such an extravagant funeral. In the long run, Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban moved the physique of Shah Jahan out of the jail, washed it and positioned it in a coffin made out of sandalwood. The coffin was then delivered to the Taj Mahal by the river, the place he was laid to relaxation, subsequent to his beloved spouse, Mumtaz.
Historical monuments which were also constructed by Shah Jahan during his rule are as follows:
- Taj Mahal
- Red Fort or Lal Quila (Delhi)
- Sections of the Agra Fort
- Jama Masjid (Delhi)
- Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque (Lahore)
- Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)
- Sections of the Lahore Fort (Lahore)
- Jahangir Mausoleum
- Shahjahan Mosque (Thatta)